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Chronic kidney disease is a global burden with a high economic cost to health systems and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity. 13-20% of chronic kidney diseases are due to Glomerulonephritis.

What is glomerulonephritis?

Glomerulonephritis is a kind of diseases that affect the glomeruli in the kidney which works as filters for blood. More commonly it is known as nephritis (“itis” is synonym for inflammation).

When the filters are injured, we get different types of response – structural injury leads to Haematuria (blood loss in urine), or Proteinuria (loss of protein in urine). If there is swelling in glomeruli (inflammation due to immune response) it may lead to reduction in filtration capacity and kidney failure.

Natural response to this inflammation decides the outcome of this disease.

Acute form is self-limiting disease:Where glomeruli recovers in weeks to months without any treatment.

Chronic progressive disease: Where low slow inflammation continues without apparent clinical symptoms for years and if not picked up in early stage it may progress to chronic kidney failure.

Rapidly progressive Glomerulonephritis:This is the most catastrophic among all nephritis. If not treated promptly it can lead to permanent kidney failure within weeks.


  • Puffiness of your face in the morning
  • Blood in the urine/ Red or Cola coloured urine without pain
  • Less urinating than normal

Acute glomerulonephritis may show some symptoms of being short of breath and cough, the reason being extra fluid in lungs. It also causes high blood pressure.

The chronic form may develop without any symptoms over many years, it most of the time leads to kidney failure. Early signs or symptoms of chronic form is

  • Blood or protein in the urine
  • High Blood pressure
  • Swelling of ankles
  • Frequent night time urination
  • Very bubbly urine

There are many symptoms that indicate kidney failure which is as following

  • Lack of appetite
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Tiredness
  • Difficulty Sleeping
  • Dry and itchy skin
  • Night time muscle cramp

Must visit a doctor if all the symptoms are being observed in your body.


The Acute form can be caused by infection- in the throat/skin/viral. The other reasons consist of Collagen vascular disease like lupus/vasculitis – like, Goodpasture’s syndrome, Wegner’s disease, polynarcotic nodose and drugs.

The chronic form mostly runs in the family, this form often shows up in a young person who might have problems with vision and eye-sight. It also can be caused by the changes in the immune system. Causes can remain unknown in many cases.


Good Hygiene, Practising “Safe Sex”, and avoiding IV drugs are helpful in preventing viral infections such as HIV and hepatitis.

If you have the chronic form, the control over blood pressure is most important as it might damage your kidney. Eating less protein will also help. Visiting a renal dietician is also recommended.

Treatment Available


  • Salt and fluid restriction.
  • Avoid Fruits, fruit juices, coconut water and dry fruits.
  • Protein restriction – Avoid non-vegetarian food, restrict pulses and legumes.

The Acute form might heal by itself.

  • Antibiotic for Bacterial infection.
  • Diuretics for swelling and puffiness.
  • Anti-Hypertensive medication for BP control.

In case of progression of disease steroids and other immunosuppressive therapy is the most appropriate treatment.

In conclusion, Glomerulonephritis is one of the curable/ controllable diseases which can cause chronic kidney diseases. It is one of the diseases that only can be detected by regular health check-up. Regular health check-up may help one detect the disease on earlier stage and necessary steps can be taken.