Congenital Diseases

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Congenital means present at birth, so generally refers to those abnormalities that may be permanent birth defects.

As the foetus develops in the womb, part of the urinary tract can grow to an abnormal size or in an abnormal shape or position. These problems include:

  • Primary defects of the kidney tissue (parenchymal disease)
  • Obstruction of the urinary tract (hydronephrosis with obstruction)
  • Hydronephrosis without obstruction, including vesico-ureteral reflux
  • Cystic diseases
  • Metabolic diseases
  • Syndromes